What Is Finance?

A Banner That about What is Finance

Money is the most desired thing ever. Money can solve problems; money can cause problem. Money can make life beautiful. Everyone needs a minimum amount to survive. Highest has got no ceiling. But the lowest is very certain, the amount you need to buy food, clothing to wear, pay the rent.

Basic Needs of Human

In a world where 25,000 people, including more than 10,000 children, die from hunger and related causes there are also some people with net worth of billions and planning to make the space ready for human living and investing to this dream.

According to Forbes the most influential finance magazine there are at least 2000 people in this earth has more than $1,000,000,000. Isn't it very surprising? Some struggling for money to eat and some have billions. Indeed, it is. Who can answer the question "How to be a Billionaire?" to solve all these monetary problems, there might be many people near you can answer the question.

Webpage of Forbes list of 2024 billionaires

But why you are asking? What are you looking for? The answer or billions? No matter how much correct the answer you just got from any source, that is not bringing any changes in your wallet. To change the things around the world you are living a concept that is very important be clear with is the Concept of Finance.

What is Finance?

Finance is the collection of scientific explanations and the theories evolved from these explanations about the characteristics of wealth. Finance is the art and science of managing money. It encompasses everything from planning your personal budget to making complex investments and running a business. It involves activities like saving, borrowing, and allocating funds to grow your wealth over time. Whether you're an individual trying to reach your financial goals or a corporation making strategic decisions, understanding financial concepts is essential for making informed choices and achieving long-term success.

Basic Concepts of Finance

There are millions of articles, books, publications, research papers etc. you will find in the web about what is finance. They are enriched with researched based data, data driven insights. But to understand the process in a very basic stage these might not help you. Let's think of cycle that represent the concept of finance. See the picture below,

The cycle of a Basic Financial Concepts

Income & Expenses

Understanding the money coming in (income) and going out (expenses) is the foundation of financial literacy. This includes budgeting, tracking your spending, and identifying areas to save. For example, you have three cars and started a rent-e-car business. Each day you are renting each car for $30, What is the net amount are comes to you daily? that is $90. But the whole of this amount is not your income. You would have to maintain the vehicles to run well, you have to wash them in a car wash that charges $30. You have to pay the drivers driving for you $30 for each day as wages. Now how much is left for you? $30, that is your income, in terms of finance net income. $90 is your revenue, $60 is your expenses and $30 is your net income.

Savings & Investing

Savings involves setting aside money for future goals, like a down payment on a house or retirement. Investing involves using your money to grow wealth over time, through options like stocks, bonds, or mutual funds. These concepts look so complex and broad? Let's assume that you are earning $30 daily, that is $900 for a month. Out of this $900, you may need $450 for your living. What about the other $450?. You may start saving with this amount. But today the $450 you are saving won't be equal to $450 after 10 years in terms of value.

That is the concept of the time value of money. We will discuss this concept in our upcoming blogs. Meanwhile just try to understand with a simple example, How much a house in Texas would be prized in 1950? roughly $7000, but today the same house may cost up to $1000k or even more. Has the house grown bigger? Has the size of the land the house is occupying doubled than before days? No. But the value of USD decreased. This is where the concept of investment emerged. Investing in profitable businesses regardless of ownership can make you competitively rich at any given timeframe than saving could make you. Today modern financial experts suggest that you may invest 15%-25% of your post-tax savings.

Risk Management

Now you are earning $900 a month, saving $450 each month and investing them in profitable businesses. Suppose on a random morning one of your vehicles does not start. You rushed to the garage and the mechanic said the engine had collapsed. It needs a repair worth $500. Suddenly more than 50% of your monthly revenue and 100% of your net income are gone. This month you must pay $50 from your pocket to keep the business going. This scenario is called "Peril" in the formal terms of finance. Scenarios similar to this urged for a solution for all businesses. Any random person would be saving a fraction of his net income periodically and would be supported by the amount of saving in similar peril situations. Does it sound familiar? Yes, you are right if you have got it, we are talking about insurance. This is how one by one all types of financial organizations will be talking about.

Debt & Interest

Guess that you are a rent-a-car owner. Your name is Mr. Gates, you have saved $5000 from your net income. Would you like to keep the money in your house? There are potential risks of get stolen, attacked by intruders or maybe some big rats are enjoying co-living with you. Then you heard about an organization who has permission from federal government to keep people's money as a deposit with best security measures. They are called to introduce their organization as a bank. You have deposited all your savings in a bank. They don't charge you for the security of the money if you allow them to invest the money with their own liability. Regardless of how much they would be making from that business they have invested on, they are abiding by a written agreement with you to pay 9% of your deposited amount as profit annually. This 9% will not affect the total amount deposited. This 9% is your interest. This is how the banks started promoting their organizations. But how they are paying this extra 9%? They are investing your money in a profitable business. They are making money out of that investment amount and sharing the fixed percentage with you.

Through this process, some experts emerged in the market. They called themselves the financial experts. They were really aware of the trends of several businesses. They could figure out by considering some KPIs which businesses are going to be profitable. They started Investment firms, the second-generation financial organizations. The question should come very frequently if you are reading mindfully that where is the discussion about debt? The businesses got investments from banks or other financial organizations and considered the amount as debt from investors. This consideration was not spontaneous rather the term was suggested by the investors.

Modern Era Financial Concepts

In earlier days of banking and other financial organizations back then in early 18th century the world population was about one billion. Now the population of the world is more than 7 billion. With this booming population, the literacy rate has also increased. Above all the structure of Governments had seen significant changes in the 19th century. With the industrial revolution, the idea and concept of finance changed dramatically. Here are some modern financial concepts that are crucial to consider to better understand the concept clearly,

Budgeting & Financial Planning 

Creating a budget helps you allocate your income towards your expenses and savings goals. Financial planning involves setting long-term financial goals and developing strategies to achieve them. Budgeting and financial planning are foundational aspects of personal finance management, enabling individuals to effectively manage their resources and work towards their financial goals. Creating a budget involves systematically allocating income towards various expenses, such as housing, transportation, utilities, groceries, entertainment, and savings. By tracking expenses and income through a budget, individuals gain insights into their spending habits and can identify areas where they can reduce costs or reallocate funds towards more meaningful objectives.

Time Value of Money

This concept acknowledges that a dollar today is worth more than a dollar tomorrow due to the potential for investment growth.  Understanding this principle is important for future financial planning. The concept of the time value of money is fundamental to finance and underscores the idea that a dollar received today holds greater value than the same dollar received in the future. This principle arises from the notion that money has the potential to grow over time through investment opportunities, such as earning interest or generating returns in financial markets. Therefore, a dollar today can be invested to yield additional income or returns, making it more valuable than a dollar received later.

Compound Interest

Earning interest on your interest is a powerful tool for growing wealth over time.  The earlier you start saving and investing, the more time your money must benefit from compound interest. Compound interest is a concept in finance where interest is not only earned on the initial principal investment but also on any interest that accumulates over time. This compounding effect leads to exponential growth in wealth over the long term, making it a powerful tool for building financial security and achieving wealth accumulation goals. By reinvesting earnings back into the investment principal, individuals can harness the full potential of compound interest to accelerate wealth growth.


Understanding different types of taxes (e.g., income tax, sales tax) and how they impact your finances is crucial.  Tax planning strategies can help you minimize your tax burden. Taxes play a significant role in personal finance and can have a substantial impact on an individual's financial well-being. Different types of taxes, such as income tax, sales tax, property tax, and capital gains tax, affect various aspects of financial planning and decision-making. Understanding these taxes and their implications is crucial for managing finances effectively and minimizing the overall tax burden.

Financial Products & Services

A variety of financial products and services are available, such as checking and savings accounts, credit cards, insurance, and retirement plans.  Understanding these options and choosing those that fit your needs is important. Financial products and services encompass a wide range of offerings designed to meet the diverse needs and objectives of individuals and businesses in managing their finances. From basic banking accounts to complex investment vehicles, understanding the available options and selecting those that align with one's financial goals is essential for making informed decisions and achieving financial security.

If you have completed reading till this, you must be thinking, financial concepts are very complex or not worth of understanding or investing this much time in. But in this fast-paced world where financial knowledge is the power that can make you stand out of the crowd, finance is the topic we should be learning about without any hesitation. After all, think of world, where billions of people starving and suffering in enormous problems just because of money, You must be interested to know more about finance just to keep yourself better.

20 Finance FAQ's

What is the difference between income and expenses?

Income is all the money you earn (wages, salary, investments), while expenses are all the costs associated with your lifestyle (fixed like rent and variable like groceries).

Why is budgeting important?

Budgeting helps you allocate your income wisely, avoid overspending, and prioritize your financial goals (saving, debt repayment).

What are the different budgeting methods?

Popular methods include the 50/30/20 rule (50% needs, 30% wants, 20% savings/debt), zero-based budgeting (allocating every dollar to specific categories), and envelope budgeting (using physical envelopes for different spending categories).

What is the difference between saving and investing?

Saving involves setting aside money for short-term goals (emergency fund, vacation) in low-risk accounts like savings accounts. Investing involves using your money to grow wealth over time for long-term goals (retirement) in potentially higher-risk, higher-return assets like stocks and bonds.

What is the time value of money?

A dollar today is worth more than a dollar tomorrow due to the potential for investment growth. Starting to save and invest early allows your money to benefit from compound interest (earning interest on your interest) for a longer period.

What are the different types of debt?

Common debt types include mortgages (loans to buy a house), student loans, auto loans, and credit cards. Understanding interest rates and repayment terms for each type of debt is crucial.

What is risk tolerance?

Your risk tolerance is your comfort level with potential losses in investments. Higher-risk investments generally offer the potential for higher returns, while lower-risk investments offer lower potential returns.

What are the different types of financial products and services?

These include checking and savings accounts, credit cards, insurance (health, life, auto), retirement accounts (IRAs, 401(k)s), and investment vehicles (stocks, bonds, mutual funds). Choosing the right products depends on your needs and goals.

What is financial planning?

Financial planning involves setting long-term financial goals (retirement, education) and developing strategies to achieve them. It considers your risk tolerance, investment options, and tax implications.

What are some tips for improving financial literacy?

Take online courses, read financial blogs, utilize budgeting apps, and seek guidance from financial advisors (consider their fees and qualifications).

What are some common financial mistakes?

Living beyond your means, not having an emergency fund, not saving for retirement, and making impulsive investments without research are some common pitfalls.

How can I pay off debt faster?

Prioritize high-interest debt, consider debt consolidation, and explore strategies like the snowball or avalanche method (paying off the smallest or largest debts first, respectively).

What are some ways to save money on everyday expenses?

Cook more meals at home, compare prices before buying, utilize coupons and discounts, and consider alternative transportation options (walking, cycling, public transport).

What are some tips for saving for retirement?

Start saving early, contribute as much as possible to your retirement accounts (if available), and take advantage of employer-matching contributions.

What is the difference between a stock and a bond?

Stocks represent ownership in a company and have the potential for higher returns but also higher risk. Bonds are loans to a company or government that offer a fixed interest rate but lower potential returns.

What is diversification and why is it important?

Diversification involves spreading your investments across different asset classes (stocks, bonds, real estate) to reduce overall portfolio risk.  If one asset class performs poorly, others may help minimize losses.

What are some signs I need a financial advisor?

If you feel overwhelmed by financial decisions, have complex financial goals, or lack the time and knowledge to manage your investments, a financial advisor can provide personalized guidance.

What are some resources for managing student loan debt?

Several government programs and repayment plans are available to help manage student loan debt. Explore options like income-driven repayment plans and loan forgiveness programs.

How can I protect myself from financial scams?

Be wary of unsolicited investment offers, do your research before investing in anything, and never share personal financial information readily. Report suspicious activity to the authorities.

What are some essential financial documents to have readily available?

Tax returns, bank statements, investment account statements, insurance policies, and a will are some important documents to keep organized and easily accessible.